A assimetria chinesa
Hu Xingdou, no openDemocracy, escreve sobre as assimetrias da sociedade chinesa e do contraste entre a segunda geração de pobres e a segunda geração de ricos. Segundo Hu, este contrate demonstra uma dura realidade da China: os filhos dos pobres têm poucas hipóteses de melhorar a sua condição de vida em relação à dos seus progenitores. E se, segundo um ditado chinês, uma fortuna nunca dura mais de três gerações, a pobreza essa parece permanecer eterna:
[…] So who is responsible for the vast numbers who inherit poverty? And how to change their fate?
In China, the cycle of poverty is due to the failings and irrationalities of a number of systems – of household registration, education, state-owned monopolies, taxation, distribution of resources, welfare, the press, public representation and government bureaucracy.
The household registration (hukou) system classifies people according to domicile and rural or urban status, and creates congenital poverty for rural families. Their children will always be classed as rural residents unless: – they get into university, and the chances of that are extremely slim. The offspring of those who move to work in the cities will not be treated as locals or even Chinese citizens
By leaving their domicile, they lose entitlement to even the limited welfare / services they would get at home, so the very much fall through the cracks. – their parents buy property or start a business, and the chances of that are again extremely slim. According to one report only four or five of Nanjing’s one million migrant workers obtained an urban hukou over a five year period – even the lottery offers better odds. The household registration system is the prime cause of prejudice, social immobility and second-generation poverty.
The hukou system also gives rise to a divided educational system. Vastly greater spending in urban areas leaves rural children struggling to obtain a good education. Their chances of attending university are slim: According to a report from an academic seminar on the theory and reality of educational equality in China, children from rural households are only one fourth as likely as children of urban workers to be accepted to a key national university, and have less than one thirtieth the chance of children of government and Party officials. Educational inequality passes poverty on through the generations. […]