Entrevista a António Guterres
Christophe Vorlet, «The New York Times»
Como Alto Comissariado das Nações Unidas para os Refugiados, António Guterres tem a missão de conduzir e coordenar a acção internacional para protecção e bem-estar de 10,5 milhões de refugiados em todo o mundo. Embora este número tenha descido 8 por cento a partir de 2009, principalmente devido ao regresso de muitos refugiados à zona de origem, como no Iraque, o desafio que todos os dias tem que enfrentar é considerável. Com o seu mandato de cinco anos a terminar, António Guterres concede uma entrevista a Elizabeth Dickinson, na Foreign Policy, na qual reflecte sobre a situação do Sudão, Iraque, Afeganistão e afirma que os conflitos são cada vez mais preocupantes e difíceis de resolver:
FP: If you compare today’s situation to that of 2005, when you became high commissioner, what’s the biggest difference?
AG: Conflicts are not getting better. Conflicts are getting more worrisome and more difficult to solve. For example, the number of people we helped to return last year decreased dramatically. The three biggest countries where return operations are taking place face complex security challenges: Afghanistan, Southern Sudan, and DRC. Conflicts aren’t getting better, the number of refugees and internally displaced people aren’t decreasing. That’s one point.
The second point is that in general the human rights agendas are losing ground to the national sovereignty agendas. That has many important implications.
The third — and I don’t want to look too pessimistic — is that we’re witnessing new trends of forced displacement. A refugee in the traditional vision is someone who flees from country to another because of persecution or conflict. But what we’re witnessing now more and more is a certain number of mega-trends interacting with one another: population growth, urbanization, food insecurity, water scarcity, climate change, and conflict. More and more people are on the move for reasons that are sometimes difficult to differentiate. If a Somali crosses the Gulf of Aden, is it because of the conflict or because [there are no] jobs? Probably both. Climate change [also] enhances conflict. If resources become scarce, people tend to fight for them. This is increasing the number of people on the move and the number of people forced to move. They’re not refugees, according to the legal definition, but they represent a major humanitarian and human rights challenge, as well as a major challenge for world politics.